Teacher Education Workshop Series

Workshop Title: Teaching Students How to Read (for teachers)

Training Facilitators: Dr Lim Boon Hock HonFRSAS & Dr Chia Kok Hwee HonFRSAS

Synopsis: This is an interactive activity-based workshop that will introduce the cognitive processing model of reading in layman’s terms to teachers so that they will know what reading as a dynamic process involves and what happens when the process breaks down. The facilitators will help teachers to establish their students’ profiles in their reading competence and performance through an informal reading inventory as well as standardized reading tests. The facilitators will also show the teachers how to determine their students’ levels of reading performance in terms of word knowledge, word recognition, word identification or expression, sentence reading, and reading experience according to the respective age equivalents. In addition, teachers will also learn to identify their students’ reading interests or preferences and reader perception. More importantly, teachers will also learn to identify the different error types in reading so that they will learn how to help their children to manage/cope with these difficulties. Reading comprehension will not be covered in this workshop as the topic is too wide to be included here.


  • An introduction to the cognitive processing model of reading
  • Understanding their children’s reading profiles: (1) reader type: 1.1 those who can read and do read, 1.2 those who can read but don’t read, 1.3 those who can read but with difficulties, and 1.4 those who don’t read because they can’t read; (2) reading interest or preference; and (3) reader perception/attitude.

  • Reading knowledge domains: (1) letter knowledge; (2) word knowledge; (3) topic knowledge; and (4) background knowledge & prior experience

  • Reading components: (1) letter awareness; (2) letter-name/sound correspondence; (3) word recognition and identification; (4) meaningful decoding of words in phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs and/or texts; and (5) word knowledge, i.e., encoding words to make meaningful sense.

  • Analysis of reading error types according to either morpheme-class or phoneme-class: (1) substitution, (2) invention, (3) insertion, (4) addition, (5) omission, (6) reversal.

  • Remedial strategies: (1) basic phonics skills, i.e., sound-to-word matching, word-to-word matching, recognition of rhyme, isolation of phoneme (initial, medial or final), segmentation of phonemes, counting phonemes, blending phonemes, alliteration of initial phonemes, phoneme deletion, identifying missing phonemes, and phoneme substitution; (2) phonological rules; (3) high frequency and sight word lists; (4) how-to reading strategies: read to, read with and read by; (5) diagnostic teaching basing on the reading error types; (6) the buddy reading programme; (7) the appropriate reading schemes; and (8) fun reading activities to raise their children’s level of mindfulness in reading.